U ovom vežbanju naučićete:
- Kako se koristi gerund
- Nekoliko novih izraza u engleskom jeziku
Pročitajte članak objavljen na sajtu guardian.com, a zatim uradite vežbanja ispod:
Members of the House of Lords can no longer “rest their eyes” while in the chamber. After several instances of our noble peers snoozing on the red benches, the government representative circulated a memo warning members of the upper house they should stay awake in the chamber. “It has been observed by members of our house that, over recent months, conduct in the chamber has not been of the standard we should expect,” he said in an email.
Napping lords make us laugh, but sleeping at work is more widespread than we might think. Firms that require employees to work odd hours such as airlines often provide sleeping facilities. If facilities are not on tap, workers take matters into their own hands, sleeping on sofas and in supply cupboards.
In many countries, a nap is a part of the working day. For his PhD thesis, Dr Zhongyuan Zhang found that napping was an important part of the working day in a Chinese governmental department. For his book Empty Labor, the Swedish academic Roland Paulsen spoke with many so-called “empty workers”, whose workloads took up less than half the time spent at work. Far from being relaxing, having nothing to do was tough. To get through the day, some worked on a novel, others played video games. Some just slept.
Even overburdened employees are encouraged to nap on the job. Software developers, advertising agencies and investment banks have started to install sleep pods. Bosses claim they increase employee wellbeing.
I Odgovorite na pitanja tako što ćete izabrati jedan od tačnih odgovora:
1. Why did the government representative circulate the memo?
a) Because members of the House of Lords snoozing during the work hours
b) Because a nap is a part of their working day
c) Because they don’t agree with the Swedish academic
2. Which firms often provide sleeping facilities?
c) Airline companies
3. What are “empty workers”?
a) People who go to work tired
b) People whose workload takes up less than half the time spent at work
c) People who regularly sleep during their working day.
4. It is believed that taking a nap at work could:
a) Increase employee wellbeing
b) Overburden the employees
c) Should be prohibited
Gerund u engleskom
Obratite pažnju na sledeće reči u tekstu:
Verovatno vam je nastavk -ing već poznati kada ste učili Present Continuous. Ovaj oblik reči u primerima iznad, zove se gerund, i on ima odlike i imenica i glagola, u zavisnosti od toga na kom se mestu nalazi u rečenici. Na primer:
Snoozing at work is prohibited. (Dremanje na poslu je zabranjeno.) - Ovde gerund ime odlike imenice i upotrebljen je kao subjekat rečenice.
They provide sleeping facilities. (Oni obezbeđuju prostoje za spavanje.) - Gerund upotrebljen kao pridev.
I couldn't help laughing. (Nisam mogao a da se ne nasmejem.) - Ovde gerund ima odlike glagola.
Kada se koristi gerund?
Neki od primera kada se koristi gerund su ovi:
- Subjekat rečenice - Swimming is his hobby.
- Objekat rečenice - He has finished working.
- Dodatak glagolu to be - My favorite pastime is watching TV.
- Pridev ispred imenice - working day, working hours, sleeping pod
- Kao deo glagola u složenim rečenicama - This means putting more people out of work.
- Posle izraza insist on, fond of, instead of, towards, dangers of, tired of, give up, decide against, concentrate on, refrain from, prevent from, apologize for…
II Dopunite ove rečenice koristeći gerund nekog od ponuđenih glagola:
be, repeat, nap, disturb, sleep, play, work, smoke
1. _________ lords make us laugh, but _________ at work is more widespread than we might think.
2. You will have to refrain from _________ inside the office since it's prohibited.
3. A 30-minute lunch break is a part of my _________ day.
4. You must be tired of _________ the same lesson multiple times.
5. I really need to apologize for _________ him.
6. I gave up _________ tennis many years ago due to my arm injury.
7. He has always insisted on _________ the most experienced employee in our department.
A sada obratite pažnju na nekoliko izraza iz teksta i njihovo značenje:
Rest your eyes - Izraz koji se koristi za nekoga ko spava, a ne bi trebalo da spava, već ima izgovor da “odmara oči”.
Instance - Neki događaj ili slučaj, ovde konkretno (several instances) bi moglo da se prevede “nekoliko puta”, “u nekoliko navrata”.
Widespread - Ovaj izraz se koristi kada veliki broj ljudi veruje da je nešto tako. Bukvalno ova reč znači “široko rasprostranjen”, ali ovo nije baš uobičajeni izraz, pa bi u ovom tekstu (sleeping at work is more widespread than we might think) prevod mogao da glasi "spavanje na poslu je daleko učestalije nego što možda mislimo".
Get through the day - Idiom koji znači uspeti u nekoj teškoj situaciji, u ovom primeru (to get through the day), značilo bi “pregurati dan”.
Overburdened - Opterećen mnogim stvarima (fizički ili psihički, u smislu pritiska koji osoba oseća).
Wellbeing - Situacija u kojoj je osoba zadovoljna, osecaća se udobno i srećno, i često se prevodi kao “blagostanje”.
III Upotrebite ove reči u sledećim rečenicama.
1. The students always have so much homework, that they often feel so _________.
2. I just need to _________, and then I’ll be able to go home and sleep.
3. The aim of this weekend is complete relaxation and improvement of your _________.
4. There is a _________ belief that more can be done to reduce pollution.
5. In several _________, the copies of the document have been found scattered around.
6. If you can’t sleep now, just sit here on the sofa and _________ for a while.